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Atlantic Ocean

Region: South Iceland
Coordinates: 63.2937349° N 20.5120638° W

The Atlantic Ocean covers almost one-fifth of the earth and separates the continents of Europe and Africa in the east and North and South America in the west. The name of the sea is derived from Greek mythology, Haf Atlas, and it is the second largest of the world’s oceans after the Pacific. Its area is 82,440,000 km² without a holder and with it 106,460,000 km². Its mean depth is 3300 m and the greatest depth is 8380 m in the Puerto Rico River north of the island. Its width from east to west is uneven. Between Newfoundland and Ireland is 3403 km, but to the south it breaks to just over 5000 km before narrowing again, so the distance between the Sao Roque Heads in Brazil and the Palmas Heads in Liberia is 2924 km. It widens back south, so the distance between Hornhöfði and Góðrvonarhöfði is just over 6600 km.

Iceland drift zone

No other ocean in the world receives more water from the continents, because many of the world’s major rivers flow to it (St Lawrence, Mississippi, Orinoco, Amazon, Rio de la Plata, Congo, Niger, Loire, Rhine, Elba and the major streams Mediterranean, Baltic and Black Sea). In the North Atlantic there are far more islands than in the southern part, and the coastal lengths along the northern part are much more diverse than with the southern part. The northern part is linked to the ports, such as the Caribbean with the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St. Lawrens, the Hudson and Baffin Gulf in the west, and the Baltic, the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the east. The northern and southern limits of the sea are unclear.

The Arctic is the Arctic Sea, which is usually considered part of the Atlantic. The boundaries of the southern part are not as obscure, although the name Suðurhöf is emerging around the Arctic. The line between Agulhas Heads in Africa after 20 ° A to the Antarctic is widely recognized and on the west there is a line of Drake channels between Hornhead and the end of Antarctica. Landscape of the seabed. The most striking feature of the bottom landscape is the Atlantic ridge, which extends longitudinally from north to south and covers one third of the bottom area. In some places, the ridge is above sea level. Azores, Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristran da Cunha, Gough and Bouvet are all volcanic islands rising from the ridge.

Iceland, which is in the middle of it, is his highest point. The east and west ridges are 3600-5500 m deep sea area, where part of the bottom is mountainous but other parts of it lightens. Large and ancient volcanoes stand there independently or in rows. The closer the mainland draws to a rocky bottom and then steep to the continental shelf. The Caribbean and the South Sandwich Islands form a large and unstable archipelago, with the Atlantic deep in steep slopes and troughs.

Islands . Among the islands that are not on the same bases as the continents on either side of the ocean but on volcanic activity are Iceland, the Azores, Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet (54 ° 26’S) and Noronha (close to Sao Roque Head). Volcanic islands of a different type are the archipelago of the great Lower Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. The islands of the Great Antilles in the Caribbean and South Georgia and the South Orkneys in the Scottish Sea. The British Isles are the mainland islands of the eastern and Newfoundland and the Falkland Islands of the western sea.

Geology . The Atlantic is the youngest in the world. Its origins and evolution are explained by the theory of land drift and raft movement. According to them, a huge mainland, Pangaea, began to break up about a year ago. 180 million years. The land operation opened permanently known gaps between new continents moving east and west (Europe, Africa, and America). Theory of the land is becoming increasingly popular as the events and research on the Atlantic spine increase.

Plate Tectonics

Most of the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean is covered with calcium sediments. Below the depth of 5000 m, the amount of lime carbon dioxide decreases and red, clayey material increases. Fine-grained material is insignificant on the underwater spine and is most abundant on organic sediments (pteropod gastropod). In the southern latitudes, most silica is present, which is low in the Arctic (unlike the Pacific). Around 2/5 of the bottom is covered with chalky, tiny crustaceans, globigerina, etc. A quarter of the bottom is covered with sand and the rest are stones, gravel and shells. Much of the fine material that offshore winds carry from the desert’s wilderness is in the ocean off the west coast of Africa. In the northern regions, there is a large and small boulder that carries ice cream. After World War II, drill cores, up to 20 m long, have been collected in the South and North Atlantic. They have emphasized the importance of the effects of turbulent currents, such as caused by natural disasters (glacial events following a volcanic eruption under the glacier, etc.). After the end of the ice age, these turbidity streams have been rather infrequent, so that in many places their older layers are covered with a few centimeters thick deep-sea animals. Studies of the shell-shaped cores have revealed climatic changes, ice ages and warming between the last two million years.

In the 1960s, the Atlantic sedimentary drill was able to drill. The deepest cores revealed that they formed 245-66.5 million years ago (Mesozoic). Age determinations are based on the radiotherapy method and repositioning of sediments, which occur every few million years, and indicate the rate of sedimentation of deep-sea animals (1-2 cm per 1000 years). In some places, the collections are greater, as rapids have a similar effect to scrapers or landslides.

North Atlantic climate . The North Atlantic weather conditions are largely determined by the prevailing winds and air masses from North America. In winter, the west winds sweep at an altitude of 3000-12,000 m over North America to the north for impact from the Rocky Mountains and to the south over the eastern continent. This landscape effect opens cold air masses from Canada and Alaska to the Atlantic coast. The temperature difference is high between the Arctic Air and warmer Pacific Ocean or Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Stream currents. On this belt a low pressure area (lowering) is formed, which creates strong winds on its way across Newfoundland and Iceland. Their growth and occurrence is mainly based on the temperature difference, so that winter storms are more intense than summer storms. These depressions transfer heat, humidity and motility from the tropics and act as a tropical ventilation system. It is also a lining that maintains the west winds at central latitudes. These belts lie 10 ° north in the summer but in the winter over the North Atlantic. The temperature of the air masses over the eastern shore of North America varies during the winter, so the number, growth and trend of winter weather varies. This irregularity makes it impossible to incorporate this weather condition into the average rule of this belt on earth. Every winter, constant high-pressure areas over Iceland are contrary to the principle of the low-lying areas there, so that lows to the west are forced on paths into the Davidsund and across the Azores.

When this happens, they bypass their regular course across Europe and do not receive warm sea air, which usually causes relatively mild winters and instead cold air flows from the Arctic and Siberia south across the continent.
Cold air currents from the north-west Atlantic are absorbing considerable heat from the ocean on their way. Although this heat transfer is high due to this, it triples due to evaporation. However, the heat loss of the ocean is negligible due to the continual renewal of warm seas with the Gulf Stream and other ocean currents. The overall effect of heat and humidity increases for North American coasts is reflected, among other things, in the growth and hurricane growth.

High pressure areas between 15N and 30 ° N prevail and there are no storms. On this belt around the earth, west winds meet from the north and from the tropics to the south, sinking about 900 feet a day and becoming denser, so the weather is often sunny and rainless. To the south of this high-pressure belt a steady northeast wind blows. Although the areas closest to the equator in the North Atlantic are mostly tranquil areas, the exceptions of late summer and early fall, when the wave pattern of the east wind occurs and causes hurricanes. They grow as a result of high heat dissipation caused by evaporation from the hot sea, which condenses in a high shed area. Hurricanes can survive for over a week and their trajectory is determined by high winds.

Therefore, they usually move around the high-pressure zone in the high-pressure zone of the North Atlantic and into the west wind belt, where they cross Iceland. However, they have sometimes caused damage to the British Isles and even the Azores when the gust of wind blows out of the habit.

South Atlantic . Across the South Atlantic, the west wind belt extends almost all the way to the Antarctic from 40 ° S and the high-pressure belt is in the region around 30 ° S. This anticyclonic cycle of winds causes the localities north of the belt, where the cycle is inversely related to the northern hemisphere due to the Coriolis law (the earth’s rotation). The southeast winds meet the northeast winds in the belt around the equator, often referred to as the calm belt. There is a lot of rainfall due to rising heat and humid air. Like the North Atlantic Ocean, the weather in the high-pressure belt is usually stable and sunny but unstable and windy at higher latitudes in the west winds. This instability causes a great temperature difference between the Antarctic cold and the ocean around it rather than the contrasts between east and west as in the northern hemisphere.

Local weather fluctuations occur in both the northern and southern hemisphere. One of the most strikingly diverse clouds in the west winds. They are constantly fed in large and powerful low-lying areas, where warm and humid air masses condense northward over the cold sea and rapidly sink from cold air blowing over warmer sea. Large fog banks are common in the summer near the Grand Bank, when warm air from the mainland flows over the cold Labrador stream.

Surface Currents. Atlantic surface currents are generally consistent with the prevailing wind direction, but are driven by the coastal landscape of the surrounding continents and islands. Other factors affecting current trends include evaporation or precipitation, sea temperature differences, frictional resistance and rotation of the earth.

North Atlantic . The localities, which maintain a fairly steady stream from east to west, have a restraint from the accumulation of warm ocean to the north. A great deal of the sea flows through this stream into the Caribbean and through the Gulf of Yukata in the Gulf of Mexico. His sequel, Florida Stream, traverses the Florida Sound. There he joins the new branch, the Antilles Current, which travels east of the Antilles and forms the Gulf Stream for the eastern coast of the United States. The Gulf Stream runs along the coast to Hatteras Head, where it distances it and bends more and more east to the south of the Grand Bank at 40 ° N. As you go further, the Gulf Stream becomes somewhat vague. Part of it turns south and forms part of the circular currents in the Saragossa Sea (between West Indies and the Azores), where it is usually calm in the sea. A little colder sea continues towards the shores of Europe under the name North Atlantic Current. The little that remains goes all the way to Spitzbergen.

Cold and salty sea flows south from the Arctic Ocean along the east coast of Greenland (East Greenland current), where it gradually blends warmer sea to the south. This current continues off the southern tip of Greenland (Farewell Heads) and up the west coast, where it reverses after catching a cold sea from the Baffin Bay and flows southward as the Labrador Current. South of the Grand Bank, where this cold sea mixes with the Gulf Stream, it continues to the east and mixes with the Atlantic Ocean. In winter, this mixed sea (35 ‰ salt) cools even colder sea and becomes 3 ° C. This temperature is sufficient for this cold to condense and sink to the bottom and flow south. Similar to northern Iceland in winter, where the sea is somewhat colder, –1 ° C. It sinks to the bottom of the deep Norwegian Sea, but does not return north due to the headwaters of the Iceland-Faroe Islands and Iceland-Greeland ridges. After some mixing, this cool Atlantic seawater mixes.

In the southeastern North Atlantic, surface seawater flows into the Mediterranean Sea through the Gibraltar Channel and a saline bottom seawater from the Mediterranean Sea is widely distributed. The Canary stream branches south from the North Atlantic and flows southwest along the west coast of North West Africa. The sea temperature is low along the African coast due to the upwelling caused by the west winds off the coast. This sea continues to the west, over the southern North Atlantic as part of the warm North Equatorial Current, which turns northwest as the Antilles Current and closes the cycle around the North Atlantic.

South Atlantic . The South Atlantic currents are in many ways similar to the Nordic ones. The southeastern locales keep up with the South Equatorial current. He flows to the west, where he splits into two branches. One continues to the northern hemisphere and enters the Caribbean along with a small portion of the North Equatorial Current as the Guana Current and the other veers south as the Brazilian Current, a weak counterpart of the Gulf Stream. Between the equatorial currents and their currents in the east is the Guinea current. South of the high-pressure belt, the Brazilian current flows eastward and becomes the South Atlantic Current, which then turns toward the equator as the Benguela Current off the African coast. It is a clear market but its counterpart in the Northern Hemisphere, the Canary Stream, and colder by the coast, also due to high upstream flow. To the south, the South Pole stream flows into the Atlantic Ocean via the Drakesund, from where two branches, the Falkland Current (the counterpart of the Labrador Current), flowing along the eastern coast of Argentina, and the main river continue eastward into the Indian Ocean.

Deep currents . The North Atlantic Deep and Bottom Sea originates from the outflow of surface water between Iceland and Greenland and the Labrador Sea, from where it spreads to the south. At a depth of 1000-2000 m, seawater flows out of the Mediterranean, spreading and forming maximum salinity in a certain range. As the Mediterranean diminishes, salinity decreases due to mixing, but signs of the Mediterranean Sea can be found all the way south at 40 ° S.

Most deep from Antarctic -0.6 ° C and includes salinity 34.6 ‰. The temperature of this sea is so low that its density is higher than in the deepest places in the northern part. This sea flows north to 40 ° N. The sea begins to flow down to 50 ° S and moves to the north as a salty sea. Part of it also travels south of the equator and signs of it are found at 20 ° N. Much of these Antarctic seas and the northern masses of the Arctic mix with the North Atlantic’s deep sea and return south, where it flows in the range of 50 ° S-60 ° S. With the upstream vegetation (including phosphates) reaches the surface. This cycle is the main reason for the great wildlife and fertility of the Atlantic. The deep sea is rich in oxygen due to the fast cycle.

The tides of the Atlantic have been studied ever since. The Middle Ages recorded them on the coast of England from the year 600 and understood that they had an explanation for the position of the sun and moon. The use of modern devices for these and other related measurements has deepened people’s understanding of this natural phenomenon.

The tides in the Arctic Ocean are like one more continuous wave that travels across the ocean. The speed, direction, dimensions and behavior of the tides depend on many complex aspects, including coastal features, seabed landscape and wind and current patterns. By far the most frequent falls are the daytime shift, ie. flood and beach twice every 24 hours. and 50 minutes. Such tides occur along the entire eastern shore of the Atlantic Ocean and most of the coasts of North and South America. Mixed tides, once or twice a day, are prevalent in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, and sometimes along the coast of Brazil and at Eldland, some in the Mediterranean and along the shores of Labrador. One of the places with clean 24 hours. and a 50-minute flood and tide are on the Gulf of Mexico.

Tidal ranges and patterns in different places around the Atlantic are very crucial in many places. Such examples can be found, for example, in the Bay of Fundy in Canada, where the difference between the flood and the tide is more than 12 meters, and the Brittany coast in France, where the difference is just under 5 meters. In the Mediterranean, the difference is less than 1 meter.

Temperature . The difference in sea surface temperature is closely related to the nature of the currents. The equatorial current travels the sea to the north and south as it reaches the shores of North and South America, and there is a wide belt of warm sea surface but slender for the coast of Africa, where the Canary and Benguela currents transfer cold sea to the equator. Therefore, the sea surface of the belts 10 ° S-30 ° S and 10 ° N-30 ° N is warmer for the east coast than the west coast, but this is reversed at higher latitudes. This turnaround is noticeable in the South Atlantic, where the Falkland Current moves the cold sea up to 30 ° S (25 ° S in August), but is pronounced in the North Atlantic. There, the Labrador current flows cold sea south to 40 ° N, while the Gulf Stream moves warm sea along the Norwegian coast, where ports are ice-free in winter up to 71 ° N. The contrasts between the South and North Atlantic are related to the surface currents created by the prevailing wind direction and coastal landscape. As the Falklands stream mixes with the Brazilian stream and the Labradorian stream mixes with the Gulf Stream, the surface temperature changes rapidly over a short distance. The change is most noticeable in the Gulf and Labrador Currents, known as the “cold wall”.

In the tropics, the surface temperature is so heavily regulated by climatic factors that it is almost the same everywhere on the belt and the temperature difference due to currents does not occur. Such a difference is very clear at approx. 200 m depth. At 6 ° N-7 ° N it is 10 ° C but at 20 ° N it is 20 ° C at this depth. However, this fact does not mean that this cold sea is upstream from the equator. The heat distribution is closely related to the existence of equatorial currents. They flow to the west and the warm sea is to the right of the northern hemisphere and left of the southern hemisphere.

The distribution of heat at a greater depth is associated with the cycle described above. In the North Atlantic, the temperature gradually drops to the bottom from 5 ° C at a depth of 1000 m to 2½ ° C at the bottom. In the South Atlantic, up to 40 ° S, the temperature initially decreases to a minimum between 1000-1300 m and then rises further downwards to become 2 ° C-4 ° C at a depth of 2 km and then drops to 1 ° C at the bottom, where the Antarctic Sea is receiving. South of 40 ° S, the temperature is consistently low and near the Antarctic, the temperature is below freezing limits in large ocean areas.

Salt . Atlantic seawater is saltier than any other ocean in the world and rises up to 37 ° C in latitudes 20 ° N-30 ° N. The distribution of salinity is also linked to the feed system, where evaporation and precipitation also occur. The level of salinity varies by sea level, so it is highest in the North Atlantic, on average, 35.5 ‰. This difference can be attributed, among other things, to the high evaporation in the Mediterranean and the outflow of highly salty seawater from the high salinity levels in the North Atlantic. At the equator, precipitation is considerable and the salinity level is close to 35 ‰ but at 20 ° N-25 ° N and 20 ° S the evaporation is much higher than the precipitation, so the salinity level exceeds 37 ‰. As the north decreases, the precipitation becomes greater than the evaporation and the salinity decreases below 34 ‰. Feeds also come into play. They are much more influential in the northern North Atlantic, where 35 ‰ saltwater flows with currents to Spitzbergen at 78 ° N and Arctic Sea with less than 34 ‰ salinity south to 45 ° N for the coast of Newfoundland. North of 40 ° N, the equatorial lines lie almost from north to south, but to the south of 45 ° S they lie from east to west. The salinity of the seawater-related inlets also depends on the amount of freshwater flowing to them. The Mediterranean, which receives relatively little fresh water and much vapor, is very salty. The Black Sea and the Baltic Sea, which receive a significant amount of fresh water, are salt-less. The inner part of the Botany Bay between Sweden and Finland is almost fresh. Economic impact . Organic resources. The multifaceted and fertile world of the Atlantic is based, among other things, on its length from north to south, relatively large continental shelves, relatively large freshwater flowing into it, and circulation systems. The world of life is to a large extent based on plants (algae) and animals that have few models except in the Pacific. A wide variety of seaweeds thrives well on shallow sea and continental shelf, especially in the North Atlantic.

Among the commercially important algae is the iodine-rich laminaria-rich seaweed, potash and algae, Irish moss (Chondrus crispus), which contains carrageenan, and edible species such as Rhodymenia palmate and laver (Porphyra). . There is also a great deal of flounder (Sargassum natan) in the Sargasso Sea, home to a number of species of shellfish and fish that are commonly found in coastal areas, and the spawning zone of the European freshwater soul (Anguilla).

The high-water catchment area, especially for the west coast of Africa, in the Grand Bank region of Newfoundland and surrounding Iceland, and for the south-eastern shores of South America and South Africa, is rich in plankton, which is an aquatic life chain. The richest areas in the world are in the North Atlantic. Gliding production is relatively uniform in the equatorial areas throughout the year, but as the north draws, it is increasingly dependent on sunshine hours and is therefore by far the summer.

The Atlantic is home to numerous fungal species, anemones, crabs, crustaceans and sea turtles. Coral reefs are mainly in the Caribbean and are in no way comparable to those found in the Pacific in terms of wildlife diversity. Marine mammals in the tropics are mainly dolphins and ever-decreasing manatees and muscle seals in the northwest. Whales mainly stay in the cold-tempered and polar regions of the South Atlantic and many species move closer to the equator to feed their offspring.

Fishing . The Atlantic’s major fisheries (over half of those in the world) have long been the richest and most utilized in all oceans. Many fish species have been used to the utmost for a long time and many believe that some of the key species are at risk. Landings in the Atlantic have been relatively stable at the same time as increases elsewhere, and their proportion in world catch has decreased to less than a third since the mid-20th century. The Atlantic continues to produce millions of tonnes of fish a year for human consumption and industry. Almost all landings are found on continental shores, mainly nutrient-rich areas, where upstream flows are present.

Among the most important species are the bottom species of cod species (Cadidae), cod and haddock, as well as lobster, mackerel, etc. spp. Icelandic
In the Gulf of Mexico and in tropical regions, the catches of the catch are shrimp, shellfish and eel. Hake, tuna and sardine are important species in the South Atlantic, although the catch of the latter two has decreased.

Whales around Iceland

Many transatlantic nations have taken limited protection measures, such as through quota systems, temporary closures, and seasonal closures within the states’ fisheries and economic zones (370 km).

Oil stocks . Substantial supplies of oil and natural gas are located beneath the continental shelf and its slopes, mountain ridges and plateaus and in many places. The amount of these substances is enormous. The revenues of countries pumping oil and gas for the coasts of their countries are high (UK, Norway, US). The first oil exploration in the Atlantic took place in the Maacaibo Sea Reservoir on the Caribbean Sea of ​​Venezuela during World War I and then in the 1950s in the Gulf of Mexico. Further research in many parts of the Atlantic has revealed workable oil and gas supplies. Most of these supplies are located in and around the sedimentary strata. They are mainly found in the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana and Texas) and Campechefloo, the North Sea, off the coast of west-central Africa (off the Niger) and off the coast of Gabon and Cabinda (Angola) and east of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.

Coal . Toxic stocks of coal were found in deep layers beneath the North Sea and along part of the continent. Something is being done by coal on the seabed off the coast of Cornwall in the UK and Nova Scotia via a tunnel from shore. Year . Much of the sand, gravel and shells are sheltered on shallow shores for US and UK beaches. This material is used for landfilling, construction work and concrete formwork.

Lime-rich shell sand is taken off the coast of Iceland and the Bahamas for cement production and soil remediation. Precipitations with precious metals, ore (iron, tin, titanium and chromium) and precious stones are found for the southeastern coast of the United States, Wales, Brazil, Mauritania and Namibia. The exploitation of these natural resources has been insignificant. Diamonds have been captured on shallow seas off the coast of Namibia and on the sandy beaches themselves near the banks of the Orange River. Phosphate levels are found in many parts of the continent, most of which are probably for US shores, off the banks of the Río de la Plata, between Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and around the southernmost tip of South Africa. Sulfur is removed from the seabed off the Gulf of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep sea metals . Some areas of the seabed are covered with red clay and silica, which are again covered with small metal nodes. They are mainly made of iron and magnesium in concentric layers, formed over millions of years. There are also copper, nickel and cobalt in smaller quantities. The largest mining area is believed to be in the Sohm Plain east of Bermuda in the North Atlantic, in the Brazilian coast off the coast of Brazil, and in the Agulhas south of South Africa in the South Atlantic. These nodes in the Atlantic are smaller and not as profitable as those found in the Pacific.

Ferromagnesium nodes were first found in the Atlantic in the mid-19th century but have not been used yet.

Minerals from the sea. Salt (sodium chloride, etc.) has been extracted from the sea by the evaporation method of the tea ages along with the Atlantic Ocean and its oceans. Ancient salt processing areas along the Mediterranean Sea are still in use. The highest capacity of such an area is in Manaure, Colombia. Bromine is also worked along the northwestern coast of the Mediterranean and magnesium along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico in the US and offshore Norway. Freshwater factories have increased with increased and improved processing technology.

Other utilization . The population of the Atlantic coast, especially in North America and Europe, has increased steadily and the number of recreational opportunities on the coast has increased (sea fishing, sailing, paddle boarding and whale watching). Competition for facilities for such activities has widened the traditional use of marine and coastal areas. Sea angling is now beginning to weigh heavily in catches around the mid-Atlantic and even threaten important fish stocks. The livelihoods of the Caribbean, Bermuda, Florida Keys and French Riviera residents are heavily based on tourism and entertainment options.

Tidal Power, both experimental and fully equipped, have been based on suitable locations, such as the Severn estuary in the United Kingdom, the Fundy Bay in Canada, and the Brittany coast in France. The potential for electricity generation has been identified by utilizing the upper and lower seawater temperature in the tropics. Business and transport . The Atlantic and its port have been transport routes since shipping began. The first sources of trade at sea come from Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans.

Much of the history of Western civilization since the 1500s revolves around the Atlantic, the settlement of the New World, continuous technological advances in navigation, and ever-increasing voyages across it. Until the end of World War II, most of the world’s freight transport took place in the Atlantic. The opening of the Suez and Panamanian canals, the exploitation of oil resources on the Gulf of the Gulf and the growing importance of trade in the Pacific have reduced travel across the North Atlantic. Nevertheless, the major markets in Europe and North America require high levels of cargo traffic in these areas. Much is exported from crude oil, coal, cereals, ore and bauxite from Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina and Jamaica to industrial zones in the US, Canada and Europe. Freight ship traffic in the opposite direction is mainly based on the transport of consumer goods, hardware and vehicles, although the US and Canada also export a lot of grain, coal and iron ore. Container shipments are well organized between ports along the North Atlantic. Most of the transport is via New York and Charleston (SC) in the US and Rotterdam (Holl.) And Hamburg (TH) in Europe.

The effect of man on the environment . Pollution has not occurred to any significant extent on the seashore, but with beaches out there, where currents may or may not be and the settlement and industry are on the beach and off-shore, it is significant. Discussion of marine pollution is often related to emissions, shipping (oil pollution) and oil spill on the continental shelf, although it is known that the greatest pollution comes from land operations, such as low or unclean sewage, industry (heavy metals) and agriculture (fertilizers and pesticides). The most obvious consequence of the pollution is in areas that are saturated with nitrogen and phosphates, because there will be overproduction of algae, which then causes oxygen deficiency in the ocean and wildlife. Insecticides (such as DDT) and stable substances (PCBs) have been measured at great depths in Atlantic organisms. It seems that less of these substances are released into the ocean now, but they are decomposing very slowly (especially PCBs) and their tendency to accumulate in hazardous amounts in higher organisms makes them very dangerous to them and humans who consume them. Most of the pollution is found in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Ermasundi, the Northern and Eastern Mediterranean, on the northeastern coast of the United States, outside Rio de la Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and off the northern coast of the Guinea Gulf.

Research and survey . Advances in archaeological research strengthen the theory of many scientists on the number of Mediterranean sailing nations and their travels to the Atlantic before 600 BC. and longer trips around 545 AD Still, these expeditions for the Vikings’ time are still shared. There is considerable consensus on Egyptian, Celtic, Phoenician and Romanian voyages, which engaged in fishing and trade with the West African coasts and probably sailed all the way to Greenland, the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. The combined effects of climate change and home warfare led to the beginning of Viking voyages westbound in the 8th-9th centuries. After several visits to Iceland in the 9th century, Greenland was explored in 982 and Eiríkur Red settled there. Similar exploration trips brought Icelanders closer to Newfoundland and Labrador and probably all the way to Maine.

European Travel and Settlement . The history of the New World settlement and settlement began in the late 15th century for Europeans and lasted for over two centuries. Travels across the Atlantic increased over time, beginning with the discovery of the Caribbean and then the coasts of North and South America. The tour included Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and England. The Atlantic Ocean Circuit was used to the utmost in these trips and the seafarers also used the northeast winds on the west and the west winds and the Gulf Stream on their way home.

In 1492, the Genoese, Christopher Columbus, sailed across the Atlantic Ocean under the Spanish auspices to find the shipping route to the Far East.

According to legends from the late 15th century, (Ingjaldsholl Church Iceland) a nobleman on board was no other than Christopher Columbus, who had undertaken this trip to study the journeys of Nordic seafarers to North America. He spent the whole winter in Iceland to do so.

This scheme failed and other sailors, John Cabot, Ferdinand Magellan, and Giovanni da Verrazzano, realized how transatlantic and difficult navigating the New World nature was. In 1502, fishing started by the British, French and Portuguese fishermen in the Grand Banks area off the coast of Newfoundland. Already, a survey of the coastline has begun from the current Virginia state in the US north to Davidsund. At the same time, Portuguese sailors led by Bartolomeu Dias headed south to the Cape of Good Hope and mapped the entire west coast of Africa. They found the shipping route between Europe and India. In 1520, Magellan found the channel, which now bears his name and connects the two oceans, the Pacific and the Atlantic. English shipwright Francis Drake found Hornhöfði in the south of South America in 1578 and a good shipping route into the Pacific. Survey of these areas accelerated settlement and utilization of natural resources to land and sea increased.

The beginning of oceanography . The foundation of numerous exploratory tours and seafaring as we now know it, was laid in the Prince of Naval College and the Navy’s Henry in Sagre, Portugal, in the 15th century. He trained hundreds of sailors and led the development of shipbuilding, modeling and sailing equipment. Regular modern Atlantic research began in the 19th century. They led to the modern knowledge of the oceans. Many coarse methods of research, while leading to incorrect results and misunderstandings at this time, were still progressing. In about 1770, the American Benjamin Franklin made the first good map of the Gulf Stream, according to information that Timothy Folger collected from the postal service. Sailor Matthew Fontaine Maury worked tirelessly on calculations of winds and currents and the mapping of the seabed after 1840, laying the foundations for modern US seafaring.

The beginnings of telegram transmissions and the dream of such a relationship across the ocean demanded increased knowledge of echoes, currents, geography and sediment. British and US naval vessels were used for research to make this dream a reality. The first cable was successfully laid out in 1866. In 1872-76, research was conducted from the HMS Challenger and the results were published in 50 volumes on currents, depths, temperatures, sediments and species of plants and animals. Others who were in the balance at this time were Albert I of Monaco and a number of Nordic people, such as Björn Helland-Hansen and V. Walfrid Ekman. Albert Prince funded a fleet of marine research vessels, which led to a better understanding of the North Atlantic’s marine systems and the discovery of many species of fish in the deep sea.

The 1912 Titanic Accident caused a catastrophe in ice-sheet research and patterns in the North Atlantic and accelerated the development of telecommunications and echo measurements, leading to the establishment of an international ice-cream survey. Italian Guglielmo Marconi introduced his invention of wireless voice communication in Europe and the US during these years. He used it in 1899 to broadcast information about the American Cup sailing competition offshore. In 1925-27, the German research vessel Meteor went on numerous voyages and Germany came to the forefront in marine research. The ship was traveling through the South Atlantic and crossed the sea with 14 voyages, and the crew mapped the seabed with echo measurements and measured salinity and temperature distribution at various depths.

Modern research . World War II increased interest in the depths of the sea and led many governments to spend more money on research. After 1950, they led to the discovery of the spinal systems, which underpinned land theory and changes in the Earth’s magnetic field. In the 1970s, the Glomar Challenger deep-sea drilling vessel acquired information that shed light on the formation of the Atlantic Desert. The use of remote controlled and man-made small boats increased understanding of the marine environment, including deep-sea life, which is based on chemical diets.

Modern-day communications between continents are based on seabed fiber-optic cable. This technology provides groundbreaking possibilities for ocean sound research and the geology of the seabed. Satellites now provide information on temperatures and productivity patterns anywhere in the oceans and find warm seawater that separates from the Gulf Stream and flows into colder areas. Research is now focused, among other things, on the nature of the sea cycle, the interaction of the sea and the air and the ecosystem.


A tsunami is a Japanese name for a giant tidal wave, which causes earthquakes on the ocean floor.   It is believed that they form when inaccuracies form abruptly on the bottom.   Another hypothesis is related to sudden landslides on the sea floor or underwater eruptions.   Most giant tidal waves form on a so-called volcano, a volcanic belt around the Pacific Ocean.   In total, approx. 40 giant tidal waves have broken in Hawaii since 1819 (2002).   These waves can span hundreds of miles of ocean and reach speeds of up to 725 km / h.  Along the way, they can be around 30-40 cm high, but when they emerge in the shallows they suddenly rise to about 15 m and sometimes wipe out entire communities on the beach and cost a large number of lives, should they surprise the people.   Often these giant tidal waves are incorrectly referred to as tidal waves, although they are not in any way related to a flood or tide.   However, tidal waves can be very dangerous under certain conditions.

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